After maximizing contributions to tax-advantaged accounts like a Roth IRA or 401(k), most investors will begin contributing to a taxable brokerage account. These accounts are subject to taxes on investment gains, which can significantly impact your returns. However, there are tax-free investment options that can help you cut your tax bill and maximize your returns.
One of the most popular tax-free investment options is the Individual Retirement Account (IRA). There are two types of IRAs: traditional and Roth. With a traditional IRA, you contribute pre-tax dollars, which reduces your taxable income for the year. When you withdraw the money in retirement, it is taxed as ordinary income. With a Roth IRA, you contribute after-tax dollars, but the withdrawals in retirement are tax-free.
Another tax-free investment option is municipal bonds. These are bonds issued by state and local governments and their agencies. The interest income from these bonds is exempt from federal income tax and, in some cases, state and local income tax as well. However, it's important to note that municipal bonds may have lower yields than other types of bonds.
Investing in a Health Savings Account (HSA) is another tax-free investment option. HSAs are tax-advantaged accounts that can be used to pay for qualified medical expenses. The contributions to the account are tax-deductible, and the withdrawals for qualified medical expenses are tax-free. Additionally, any unused funds in the account can be invested and grow tax-free.
Long-term capital gains tax and short-term capital gains tax are two types of taxes that investors need to be aware of. Long-term capital gains tax applies to investments that are held for more than a year, while short-term capital gains tax applies to investments that are held for a year or less. The tax rates for these two types of gains are different, with long-term gains being taxed at a lower rate. Capital gains tax triggers, such as selling an investment for a profit, can also impact your tax bill.
For a lot of people, a tax refund represents the largest influx of money they will receive all year long. Even if you don't fit into this category, it's important to understand that a tax refund is essentially an interest-free loan to the government. By investing in tax-free options, you can reduce the amount of taxes you owe and potentially increase your refund.
Retirement is no longer a sure thing for many people as defined-benefit pension plans are steadily declining. As of March 2022, only 16% of private-sector workers had access to a defined-benefit pension plan. This means that more people are responsible for saving for their own retirement, and tax-free investment options can help them maximize their returns and reduce their tax bill.
Saving in multiple accounts could lead to a lower lifetime tax bill. For example, if you have both a traditional IRA and a Roth IRA, you can withdraw money from the traditional IRA first to reduce your taxable income in retirement. Then, you can withdraw money from the Roth IRA tax-free. This strategy can help you reduce your tax bill over the course of your retirement.
Deciding which accounts you'll withdraw money from – and when you'll take it – is an important decision in retirement. By understanding the tax implications of different types of accounts, you can make informed decisions that help you maximize your retirement income and minimize your tax bill.
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Investors can build a diversified portfolio that will never be taxed at either the corporate or individual levels. By investing in tax-free options like municipal bonds, HSAs, and Roth IRAs, you can reduce your tax bill and potentially increase your returns. Now is a great time to start exploring tax-free investment options and maximizing your returns. Don't let fear that the process might be complicated keep you from opening your first IRA or taxable brokerage account.